Saharsa is a city and a municipality in the Saharsa district is a district of Bihar state situated in the east of the Kosi River. The administrative head quarters of the district is located at Saharsa city. On 1st April 1954 the Saharsa district was emerged as a separate district in the map of Bihar state. In the past Saharsa district was the part of the Bhagalpur Division. At the very beginning the district had no independent status and some its parts were included in the old districts of Munger and Bhagalpur. On 2nd October, 1972 the Kosi Division was created which comprised Saharsa, Purnia and Katihar districts with its head quarters located at Saharsa. The Saharsa district got its name from the term ‘saharsh’ meaning 'great pleasure'.
Geographically, the district lies at 25°88'N latitudes, 86°60'E longitudes and 41 m. Altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 2.04% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 1,687 sq. km. and it is bounded by Madhubani district on the north, Supaul district on the north east, Darbhanga district on the north west, Khagaria district on the south and Madhepura district on the west. The Natives of the district experience extreme hot during the summers. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1399.6 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 2 sub-divisions namely Saharasa Sadar and Simri Bakhtiyarpur. There are 1 Lok Sabha seat and 4 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 1 town and 468 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 19,00,661 out of which 9,97,174 are males and 9,03,487 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 906 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 26.02% including 26.32% were males and 25.70% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 85.72% and 14.03% of the total population. The population density in the district is 1,127 persons per sq. kms. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Maithili, Hindi and Urdu with 68.87%, 21.15% and 9.62%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 62,535 out of which 32,098 were males and 30,430 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 6,501 out of which 4,048 were males and 2,453 were females.
The economy of the district is solely dependent on agriculture. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agricultural products grow in the district. Some of its chief agricultural products are wheat, makhana, mango, mustard, corn and paddy. The district is famous for bricks production. Industrially it is not so develop but some industries and factories of corn production, jute, soap, chocolate and biscuit can be found in the district. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Saharsa as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2011-12 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 3,86,889 at current price and Rs. 2,25,216 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. In the year 2011-12 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 3,48,385 lakhs at current price and Rs. 1,99,560 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2004-2005.
The district has numerous schools and colleges. Some of its reputed educational institutions are Senior Public School, Sarvodaya Public School, Doon public school, Shanti Niketan Shikshan Sansthan, Jawahar School, Manohar Lal Tekriwal College, Rajendra Mishra College, Ramesh Jha Mahila College, Maharaja Harivallabh Singh Memorial College, Mandan Bharti Agriculture College, Lord Buddha Koshi Medical college, Shee Narayan Medical College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 53.2% including 63.56% are males and 41.68% are females. The number of literates in the district is 8,04,996 out of which 5,06,374 are males and 2,98,622 are females.
Dinesh Chandra Yadav, an Indian politician and a member of the 15th Lok Sabha was born on 1st July, 1951 at Banma in the district. He is a member of the JD(U) (Janata Dal) political party. Earlier, he was also elected as a member of the 11th and 13th Lok Sabha. Lalit Narayan Mishra, an eminent Indian politician and the former Minister of Railways in the government of India from 1973 to 1975 was born in the year 1922 at Basanpatti in the district. He was also served as the member of the first, second Lok Sabha and 5th Lok Sabha. He was a member of Indian National Congress party.
The district has numerous tourist sites of religious and historical importance which attracts many travellers from across the country. Tara Sthan, situated at a distance of 16 kms. at the Mahishi village is a very pious place where one can found an ancient temple of Bhagwati Tara. Devotees from everywhere come to this temple to offer their prayers. Chandika Sthan located at Biratpur village of Saharsa district is a well known ancient temple of Goddess Chandi. The name of this village is also mentioned in the great epic Mahabharata. Sun Temple located at Kandaha village has been duly recognized by the Archaeological Survey of India is an extra ordinary religious and historical place. Laxminath Gosaisthal at Bangoan in the district is named after Laxminath Gosaiji (famous saint and poet). Some other notable centres of attraction in the district are Nauhatta, Udahi, Karu Khirhari temple, Matsyagandha Mandir, etc.