Banka district, a part of Bhagalpur division is a district of Bihar state with its administrative headquarters located at Banka town. Banka district came into existence in the year 1999. Banka is the birth place of Satish Prasad Jha, one of seven martyrs who hoisted the Indian at the Secretariat building near Patna on 11th August, 1942. He was born in Kharhara near Dhakamod. Banka is an abode of many veteran nationalists. Many political leaders also represented the Banka constituency in different elections such as Vindhyavasini Devi, MLA (1957-1967), Shakuntala Devi ex M.P., exchief minister of Bihar Chandrashekhar Singh, Chaturbhuj Singh Ex. M.L.A., ex Rajya Sabha MP Kamakhya Prasad Singh, ex MP Manorama Singh and ex MLA Jai Prakash Mishra respectively.
Geographically the district lies at 24°88'N latitude and 86°92'E longitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 9.17% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 3,020 sq km. and it is bounded by Munger district and Bhagalpur district on the north, Jharkhand state on the south and east and Jamui district on the west. Natives of the district experience extreme hot during the summers and fairly cold during the winters. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1161.4 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district has only one sub division i.e. Banka. This sub-division further divided into 11 developmental blocks namely Banka, Amarpur, Shambhuganj, Belhar, Fullidumar, Katoria, Chandan, Baunsi, Barahat, Dhoraiya and Rajoun. There are 1 Lok Sabha seat and 6 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 2 towns and 2,111 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 20,34,763 including 10,67,140 are males and 9,67,623 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 947 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 26.48% out of which 26.54% were males and 26.41% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 87.12% and 12.33% of the total population. The population density in the district is 674 persons per sq. kms. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 91.53%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 58,539 out of which 29,021 were males and 29,510 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 6,376 out of which 4,118 were males and 2,257 were females.
Banka is popularly known as the rice bowl of Bihar and its economy is solely dependent on agriculture. Some of its chief agricultural crops are rice, wheat, corn, and lentils. Amarpur belt is famous for the highest sugarcane production within the district. Most of its population are engaged in agriculture since it is scantily industrialized. Only a few small industries of stone crushing, sugar factory, tasar cloth weaving, chemical works are found in it. Gradually the district is growing as a prefect destination for religious tourism. In 2006 the Indian government declared Banka as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2011-12 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 2,93,628 lakh at current price and Rs. 1,71,110 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. In the year 2011-12 the Net Domestic Product in the district was Rs. 2,64,458 lakh at current price and Rs. 1,51,705 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005.
The district has a Nationalistic university named Mandar Vidyapith which was established by freedom fighters in the year 1945 in order to impart Indian education. Some of its reputed schools are R.M.K. High School, Rajpur SKP Vidya vihar, Banka P.N. Singh High School, JNV Shaktinagar Banka R.B Bal Vikas Sansthan, Tribhuwan Academy Govt school, Shri Gandhi High School, B.N. JHA High School, Adwaita Mission High School, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 58.17% including 67.62% are males and 47.66% are females. The number of literates in the district is 9,65,321 out of which 5,90,961 are males and 3,74,360 are females.
The district is an abode of many religious tourist spots which allures many travellers from different parts of the country. Malleshwar Temple, located in Bishnupur is an oldest temple of Lord Shiva. People from far distance place come to this temple to offer their prayers. Madanmohan Temple in the ekaratna style was constructed by King Durjana Singh Deva in 1694 AD. It is a building with flat square roof and carved cornices. Pancha Ratna Temple of Shyam Raya and Jorebangla Temple of Keshta Raya were built by King Raghunath Singha in 1643 AD and 1655 AD. Jhilimili, situated at a distance of 70 kms. from Bankura Town is a beautiful dense natural forest which offers a wonderful view of spectacular forests on varying heights on both sides. Susunia hill, located 50 kms. away from Bishnupur is an extra ordinary trekking spot. Travellers from across the country visit the place to see "Dhara" (a natural spring) and Silialipi. Some other notable centres of attraction in the district are Sutan forest, Biharinath hill, Mukutmonipur, Kalachand Temple, Rasmancha, etc.