Natives of the district believe that it is the place where Lord Shiva and the other Gods used to do their meditation and prayer. Different historians at different points in time have propounded their own theories about the origination of the area. However, the base of their theories is the facts related to either the Kosi River or its embankments on the tributaries. The name of the district is also mentioned in the great epic Mahabharata. Forts and ruins that featured in the stories of the Ramayana and Mahabharata are mute witnesses and visible even today. In 1845, Saharsa was a sub-division under Bhagalpur district. In 1954 Saharsa was formed from out of the area of Bhagalpur district, and subsequently, Madhepura came into existence as a district on the 9th May, 1981 with its own municipality.
Geographically, the district lies at 25°92'N latitudes, 86°79'E longitudes and 45 m Altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 2.96% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 315.06 sq. Km. and it is bounded by Supaul district on the north, Bhagalpur district on the south, Khagaria district and Saharsa district on the east and Purnia district on the West. The climate of the district is extremely hot during the summers and fairly cold during the winters. Madhepura district during the monsoons is at the mercy of the Kosi River which is also known as the 'Sorrow of Bihar'. The actual rainfall in the district was 1598.6 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 2 sub-divisions namely Madhepura and Uda Krishanganj. There are 1 Lok Sabha seat and 6 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 3 towns and 439 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 20,01,762 including 10,47,559 are males and 9,54,203 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 941 females for every 1000 males. In the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 31.12% out of which 31.41% were males and 30.81% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu and Muslim with 87.61% and 12.08% of the total population. The population density in the district is 1,120 persons per sq. kms. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Maithili and Hindi with 38.43% and 55.35%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 61,314 out of which 31,591 were males and 29,720 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 5,920 out of which 3,742 were males and 2,176 were females.
The main source of livelihood of the natives of this region is agriculture, either through cultivation of their own land or from rendering services on the land of their counterparts. The chief agricultural products grows in the district in a huge quantity are paddy, wheat, maize, jute, oil seeds, pulses and jute. The district has no big industries and factories only a few jute mills can be found in it. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Madhepura one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2011-12 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 2,80,656 lakh at current price and Rs. 1,56,788 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. In the year 2011-12 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 2,53,424 lakh at current price and Rs. 1,39,177 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005.
Madhepura boasts of a large number of standard educational institutions, which are imparting quality education to the children of the local people and also to those who come from outside the district. Some of the more renowned institutions are Swami Vivekanand Vidyapith, Shiv Nandan Prasad Mandal High School, Keshav Kanya High School, Rash Bihari High School, Don Bosco Academy, Swami Vivekananda Inter College, Kiran Public School, Holy Cross, Holy Angels, Wisdom Public School, B.N.Mandal University, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 52.25% including 61.77% are males and 41.74% are females. The number of literates in the district is 8,34,577 including 5,17,666 are males and 3,16,911 are females.
The travellers from the distance place come to this district to explore its several religious sites and historical monuments. The foremost centres of attraction in the district include Singheshwar sthan, a famous pilgrimage of Lord Mahadev is situated 8 km. away from Madhepura town. People from across the country come to this place to offer their prayers. Nayanagar Durga Sthan is a pious place located at the distance of 35 km. from Madhepura town. Some other notable places of tourist interest are the Dakini Sthan Mandir, Jwala Mandir, etc.