Jehanabad district, a part of Magadh Division is a district of Bihar state with its administrative headquarters located at Jehanabad town. The district of Jehanabad came into existence in the year 1988. In 1872, Jehanabad was the sub-division of Gaya district. During the Mauryan period (322-185 BCE) some wonderful monuments were built in the district like the famous Barabar Caves. The district came into existence on 1st August, 1986. At present, it is a part of the Red Corridor. The district is named after Jahanara Begum Sahib, daughter of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and Arjumand Banu Begum.
Geographically, the district lies at 25°22'N latitude, 84°98'E longitude and 67 m Altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 0.48% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 3,098 sq. km. and it is bounded by Patna district on the north, Gaya district on the south, Nalanda district on the east and Arwal district on the west. During the summer season the climate of the district remains extremely hot. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1196.7 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 1 sub-division namely Jehanbad. The district has 7 blocks including Jehanabad, Kako, Modan Ganj, Ghosi, Hulasganj, Makhdumpur and Ratni Faridpur. There are 1 Lok Sabha seat and 3 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 2 towns and 584 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 11,25,313 including 5,85,582 are males and 5,39,731 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 954 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 21.68% out of which 21.92% were males and 21.41% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 92.87% of the total population. The population density in the district is 363 persons per sq. km. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 95.08%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 26,735 out of which 14,044 were males and 12,687 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 4,850 out of which 2,890 were males and 1,960 were females.
The main source of livelihood for the natives of this region is agriculture either through cultivation of their own pieces of land or from working as labourers on a daily wage rate or contractual rate on the land of their neighbours or counterparts. Some of its chief agricultural products are paddy, wheat, lentils, cereals, vegetables, etc. Due to lack of industries and factories almost all people of the district are engaged in agriculture. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Jehanabad as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2011-12 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 2,02,122 lakh at current price and Rs. 1,22,896 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. In the year 2011-12 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 1,81,984 lakh at current price and Rs. 1,09,259 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005.
There are many schools in the district which contributes in the development its academic culture. Some of its reputed schools are D.A.V. School, Manas Vidyalaya, Kendriya Vidyalaya, Swami Vivekananda high school, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 66.8% including 77.66% are males and 55.01% are females. The number of literates in the district is 6,18,881 including 3,74,412 are males and 2,44,469 are females.
Arun Kumar, an eminent Indian politician and the member of the 16th Lok Sabha from the Jahanabad constituency was born on 2nd October, 1959 at Maniyawan in the district. He has been a member of various political parties but in the year 2014 he became the President of the Rashtriya Lok Samta Party of the Bihar.
The district has a variety of tourist spots which allure numerous travellers from different parts of the country. The Barabar caves are situated in the hilly area near Makhdumpur, 25 km. south from district headquarters. The place is famous for its ancient Seven Rock cut Buddhist Caves. The Baba Siddhnath Temple is a Shiva Temple which was formerly known as Siddheshwar Nath Temple, located at one of the highest peaks in the range of the hills. The temple was built in Gupta period, 7th century A.D. Mirabigha, situated at a distance of 4 km. is a village of historical importance. This archaeological site is full of temples mostly Shaivite. Hazrat Bibi Kamal ka Mukbara and Kauva Dol are some other notable centres of attraction in the district.