Kolkata, an administrative district of West Bengal with its administrative headquarters located at Kolkata city. There are some beliefs regarding the name of the district. The district got its name from the term the Bengali termKolikata, which is a variation of Kalikkhetrô, meaning "Field of the goddess Kali". On the other hand, the name may have been taken from the Bengali term kilkila means "flat area". Alternatively, the name may have derived from the two words khal meaning "canal and ka?a meaning "dug". Earlier the district was popularly known as Calcutta but in the year 2001 in order to match Bengali pronunciation itwas changed to Kolkata. Prior to the entry of British in India, the zamindari (land lordship) of all lands included from Barisha to Halishahar (mostly are the part of Kolkata at present) were acquired by the Sabarna Roy Choudhury family from the great Mughal emperor, Jahangir. After sometime, the once flourishing Saptagram port, traders and businessmen, such as the Basaks, the Sheths and others were declined and started moving southwards where they settled in or developed some places like Gobindapur. Kalighat was a significant pilgrimage centre at that time. On the other hand, one name, ‘Kalkata’, is clearly mentioned in Abul Fazal’s Ain-i-Akbari (1596). Later it was recorded as a revenue district of Sirkar Satgaon. In this way, the district has witnessed a very interesting history.
Rabindranath Tagore, the most admired and the pride of the country was a Bengali polymath who gave a distinct shape to the Bengali literature, music and culture, who was born on 7th May, 1861 at Calcutta in Bengal Presidency of British India. He has made a great contribution in the National Anthem of India i.e. Jana Gana Mana. He was the first non-European to win theNobel Prize in Literature in 1913. Ashoke Sen, an eminent IndianBengalitheoretical physicist and distinguished professor at theHarish-Chandra Research Institute,Allahabad was born in 1956 in Kolkata. His main area of work isString Theory. He has honoured by many notable awards includes Padma Shri (2001) and Padma Bhushan (2013).
Geographically, the district lies at 22°57'N latitude, 88°36'Elongitude and 9 m Altitude.In the year 2019, there was a total 0.54% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses an area of 185 sq km. and it is bordered by North 24 Parganas district on the North and East, South 24 Parganas district on the south and Howrah district on the west. The climate of the district is characterized as tropical wet and dry climate. Though summers in the district are hot and humid yet its climate remains pleasant throughout the year.Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1712.5 mm in the year of 2019-2020.
Administrative wise, the district is divided into 11 assembly constituencies namely Kolkata Port, Bhabanipur, Rashbehari, Ballygunge,Chowringhee, Entally, Beleghata, Jorasanko, Shyampukur, Maniktala and Kashipur-Belgachhia. It has only one tehsil i.e. Kolkata. Kolkata Dakshin and Kolkata Uttar are the two Lok Sabha constituencies. The administrative language in the district is Bangali.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 44,96,694 including 23,56,766 are males and 21,39,928 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 908 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was -1.67% out of which -5.73%were males and 3.24% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 76.51% and 20.60%of the total population. The population density in the district is 24,306 persons per sq. km. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Bengali, Hindi and Urdu with 61.45%, 22.84% and 13.04%.In the year 2018 the number of live births in the district was 73,519 out of which 37,900 were males and 35,619 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 68,090 out of which 39,980 were males and 28,110 were females.
Commercial and the financial hub of the district is the backbone of its economy. The core industrial sectors in the district include steel, heavy engineering, mining, minerals, cement, pharmaceuticals, food processing, agriculture, electronics, textiles, and jute. It is an abode to somebigcompanies namely ITC Limited,Coal India Limited,National Insurance Company,Exide Industriesand Britannia Industries. These industries arecontributing in its economy to a great extent. In the year 2013-14 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 59,89,590 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 36,03,193 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005. The Net Domestic Product in the district during the period 2013-14 was Rs. 54,11,804 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 32,63,950 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2013-14 was Rs. 1,12,737 at Current Price and Rs. 67,993 at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005.
The district as a seat of learning is well known across the country. The Calcutta University is the first modern university inSouthAsia which was established in 1857. The district has the pride to have the second oldest engineering institution of the country-Bengal Engineering and Science University (BESU). Jadavpur University is also a reputed university in the district. TheIndian Institute of Management (IIM) Calcutta is the first of the all Indian Institutes of Management of the county and it was founded in 1961 at Joka. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 86.31% including 88.34% are males and 84.06% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 35,88,137 including 19,26,915 are males and 16,61,222 are females.
AjitKumarPanja,anillustriouspoliticianand aformer Union minister of state in theGovernment of India was born on 13th September, 1936 in Kolkata.Earlier he was a member ofIndian National Congress party but later he joined the Trinamool Congress party. He was died on 14th November, 2008 in Kolkata.
There are various sets of tourist place in the district which allures numerous travellers from different parts of the world. The Kolkata city is popularly known as the city of joy. The Prinsep Ghat, a beautiful ghat was named after James Prinsep, a learned man who helped in deciphering Emperor Akbar's Brahminical script. It gives immense pleasure and mental peace to its visitors. Rabindra Sarovar Lake also known as Dhakuria Lake was earlier known as the lungs of Kolkata. Howrah Bridge is popularly known as Rabindra Setu in West Bengal. Howrah Bridge, a marvellous creation of British engineers is span over river Hooghly.The best place to know about the Bengali culture is Rabindra Sadan in the city.The Victoria Memorial was built in the memory of Queen Victoria in the early 20th Century, is a wonderful construction in white marble, a bit similar to the model of Taj Mahal. Vidyasagar Setu, the second famous bridge situated about 2 kms south of Howrah Bridge. Some of its ancient temples and other prominent religious places include Hangseswari temple, Bandel church, Kalighat temple, Belur math, Dakshineshwar temple, Pareshnath Jain temple, Nakhoda mosque, St. Paul's Cathedral, etc.