Ghazipur district, a part of Varanasi division is a district of Uttar Pradesh state with its administrative headquarters located at Ghazipur town. As every place has its own interesting folk history, hence the Ghazipur also has its own. Each person of the district has a belief that the father of the Maharishi Jamdagni i.e. Raja Ghadhi was hailed from this place. Moreover, during the Vedic period there was a cluster of ashrams namely Yamdagni (father of Parasuram) Ashram, Parsuram Ashram, Madan Van, etc. Then in the Buddhist period, this place was the vital centre of Buddhist learning. Hiuen Tsang a popular Chinese traveller called this region, "Chanchu" meaning the soil of battlefields. In the ancient India the place was popularly known as Gadhipuri or Gadhipur. Around 1330 ago, the region was under the rule of Ghazi Mallik, a Muslim ruler of the tughluq dynasty and at that time the name of the place was changed to Ghazipur. From the very early period of time i.e. from Sultanate period to Mughals, everyone has an eagle eye on this region. Naseer Khan Nuhani was the administrator of Ghazipur in the Lodi Period. With the change of the Mughal rulers, the administrators of this place had also changed. Jamindar Mansa Ram took the place after the death of Aurangzeb. In this way final the day come in the year 1818 when the place of Ghazipur was emerged as a separate district and incorporated in the map of India. One thing worth mentioning about Ghazipur is that it is the place where India’s first Scientific Society was established by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan in 1862 in order to promoting modern western knowledge of science, technology and industry.
Abdul Hamid, a brave soldier in the 4th Battalion, the Grenadiers of the India Army was born on 1st July, 1933 Dhamupur village in the Ghazipur district. He died in the Battle of Asal Uttar that was fought in the Khem Karan sector during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. He was honoured by many prestigious awards and medals such as Param Vir Chakra, Samar Seva Medal, Raksha Medal and Sainya Seva Medal.
Geographically, the district lies at 25058'N latitude, 83058'E longitude and 62 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 0.86% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 3,377 sq. km. and in terms of geographical are it occupies the ranks of 33rd in the state and 358th in India. It is bounded by Mau district on the north, Ballia district on the north east, Jaunpur district and Azamgarh district on the north west, Varanasi district and Chandauli district on the south west and Bihar on the south east. The prominent river that flows through the district is Ganga. The climate of the district remains extremely hot during the summer. The actual rainfall in the district was 732.1 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 5 tehsils namely Ghazipur, Saidpur, Mohammadabad, Zamania and Jakhania. There are 1 Lok Sabha seat and 7 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 5 sub-districts, 8 towns and 3,367 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 36,20,268 out of which 18,55,075 are males and 17,65,193 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 952 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 19.18% including 20.68% were males and 17.64% were females. The population density in the district is 1,072 persons per sq. km. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 67,804 including 36,007 were males and 31,797 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 10,554 out of which 5,575 were males and 4,979 were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 89.32% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 97.15%.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district. Most of the lands in the district are used for agricultural purposes. Some of its chief agricultural products are maize, urd, bajra, jowar, moong, wheat, gram, peas, mustard, sorghum, paddy, mango, papaya, guava, banana, jamun, etc. more than half of the population of the district are engaged in agriculture since it is scantily industrialised. The shortage of enterprises and lack of technical knowledge among the natives are the core obstacles in the way of industrial growth. The perfumes made of rose and the rose water of Ghazipur is very famous in India as well as world. The district has also some small scale industries of rice, agricultural goods, furniture, leather, footwear, utensils, steel trunks, almirah, khandsari, candles and handlooms which contribute in its economy to a great extent. In the year 2016-17 the gross domestic product of the district was Rs. 13,40,968 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 10,19,597 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. The Net Domestic Product in the district during the period 2017-18 was Rs. 12,52,908 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 8,76,094 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the year 2017-18 was Rs. 31,555 at Current Price and Rs. 22,065 at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is an abode of numerous reputed educational institutions. It provides platform for higher education. Some of its recognised educational institutions are Industrial Training Institute, Technical Education and Research Institute, State Polytechnic, Swami Sahajanand PG College, Hindu Degree College, Samata Degree College, Mahant Ramashraya Das Degree College, Shahid Smarak Government Degree College, State Homeopathic Medical College, Shree Prabhu Narayan Singh College, Rajkiya Mahila Degree College, MG Sati Smarak Mahavidyalaya, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 71.78% (persons), 82.8% (males) and 60.29% (females).
Manoj Sinha, an eminent India politician and the member of 11th, 13th and 16th Lok Sabha from the Ghazipur constituency was born on 1st June, 1959 at Mohanpura in the Ghazipur district. He is the present Minister of state for Railways. He is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party.
During the year 2018, there were 7,18,168 domestic tourists who visited these places of the district. The district has numerous centres of attraction with historical and religious significance which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Aunrihar, located at a distance of 3.2 km. from Saidpur is one of the oldest and most admired sites in the district. The whole surface of the Aunrihar is scattered with fragments, large carved stones and fine pieces of sculpture. Bahadurganj, a town in the district is situated on the bank of Saryu River. Natives of the district believe that Sheikh Abdullah founded this place in 1742 AD and constructed a large fort there. Bhitari, located at a distance of 32 km. form Ghazipur is a place full of great archaeological value. Two other most prominent places of interest in the district are Dildarnagar and Zamania.