Lohardaga, a part of the South Chotanagpur division is a district of the Jharkhand state with its administrative headquarters located at Lohardaga town. The district got its name from the headquarters town of Lohardaga. Earlier, in the year 1972 Lohardaga was a sub-division and later it was upgrade to a district in 1988. Lohardaga district mainly came into existence after the split of Ranchi into three different districts namely Ranchi, Lohardaga and Gumla. Most probably, the term Lohardaga is derived from two Hindi words i.e. Lohar meaning 'ironmonger' and Daga meaning centre'. Both the terms together mean 'centre of iron mining'. In the texts of Jainism it is mentioned that once Lord Mahavir's visited to Lore-a-Yadaga meaning 'river of tears' in Mundari. A place named 'Kismate Lohardaga' is also referred in the 'Ain-e-akbari', one of the notable books on Akbar.
The contribution of the people of Lohardaga to upgrade the field of intellectual, social and economic of the state of Jharkhand is remarkable. The work done by Shri Sitaram Sharma in the area of public service is really impressible. Mutity hero called pandey Ganpat Roy, who fought against the British under the leadership of Thakur vishwanath shahdeo, the rebel landlord of the place Jagannathpore in Ranchi was born in the year 1857 at Lohardaga town.
Geographically, the district lies at 23043'N latitude, 84068'E longitude and 643 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 33.60% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 1,502 sq. km. and it is bounded by Latehar district on the North, Gumla District on the South and West and Ranchi District on the East. The main rivers of the district are South Koel, Sankh, Nandni, Chaupat's and Fulijhar. These are mainly Rain fed rivers which generally dried up in the summer months. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 979.7 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 7 blocks mainly Bhandra, Kisko, Lohardaga, Senha, Kuru, Kairo and Peshrar. Moreover, it comprises 1 town and 353 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2001 census the district has a population of 4,61,790 out of which 2,32,629 are males and 2,29,161 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 985 (females per 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 26.68% including 26.08% were males and 27.3% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 24.34% and 20.57%. The population density in the district is 307 (persons per sq. km.). As per 2011 census the principal languages in the district is Kurukh/Oraon, Hindi and Urdu with 38.96%, 46.00% and 13.87%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 12,476 including 6,419 were males and 6,057 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 1,245 including 739 were males and 506 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly dependent on agriculture and forest produces. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. Paddy is the chief agricultural crop in the district. Some other agricultural products in the district are wheat and maize. The place is also connected with larger vegetable markets of Jamshedpur, Rourkela, Calcutta and many other places. It has a cold storage too. Generally, villagers of the region are still stick to the old techniques of agriculture like ploughing the agricultural field through animals. Although a dairy chilling plant is established in the headquarters town of the district. In 2006 the Indian government named Lohardaga one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2008-2009 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 70,896 lakh at current price and Rs. 53,627 lakh at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. In the year 2008-2009 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 62,333 lakhs at current price and Rs. 49,242 lakhs at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, at Factor Cost in the district during the period 2008-09 was Rs. 15,137 at current price and Rs. 11,958 at constant prices in the year 1999-2000.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its most recognised educational institutions are Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Joel Lakra High School, St. Michael’s Primary School, Lutheran High School, Mb DAV Public School, Ursuline Girls High School, B. S. College, Women’s College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 67.61% out of which 77.41% are males and 57.69% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 2,59,707 including 1,49,568 are males and 1,10,139 are females.
Lohardaga is famous as a land of intellectuals and great leaders. Some of its eminent personalities include Late Shiv Prasad Sahu politician and businessman, Late Sri Lalit Oraon a veteran leader, Harikrishna Lal a freedom fighter, ex MLC, ex VC Ranchi University.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well world. Prominent places of interest in the district are Kahkparta Shiv Temple, Ajay Garden, Korambo Mahamaya Prabhu Temple, Bagru, Nindi Fall, Sarangdag Pathar, Nandini Lake, Dhardhariya Fall, Akhileshwar Dham, Kekrang Water Fall, Lavapani Fall and many more.